ISIS | Islamic State of Iraq and Syria
In the past years, ISIS or ISIL or simply IS has all over the news, yet the origins of the called Islamic State began over a quarter of a century ago.
The principle behind IS to create a worldwide jurisdiction that overseas. The religious and political workings of all Muslims.Ultimately, initiates a new world order. But their rule of thumb seriously called into question by those they seek to initiate. Indeed, most Muslims regard IS as wholly un-Islamic and have unreservedly condemned their actions alongside the United Nations. And over 60 countries who regard them a terrorist organization.
From relatively stable humble beginnings as jama’at al-tawhid wal-jihad in 1999, a Sunni Jihadist group in Iraq, later known as ‘Al Qaeda in Iraq’ grew in strength after pledging allegiance to Osama Bin Laden’s notoriously unreliable organization in 2004. By recruiting other Sunni Jihadists during the US-led invasion of Iraq it wasn’t long before newly formed Mujahideen Shura Council powerful enough to tentatively accept declare Iraq an Islamic State. In 2006, the same year Saddam Hussein executed.
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In 2011, in the midst of the Arab Spring, operate from IS, known as the Al-Nurse Front sent to Syria to fight in the civil war. With the aim of developing an Islamic State outside of Iraq. By 2013 they’d established themselves in large parts of Sunni-rich areas but an internal power struggle within Al Qaeda prevented IS from capitalizing on their significant achievements in the region, a year later IS were independent and, with Abu Bark al-Baghdadi as their Caliph, declared a Caliphate.
Free to act with denial, IS took to social media in order to spread their message further afield, this deepened by a succession plan of grisly videos that depicted the ritualized plan exit, normally by decapitation, of anyone unfortunate enough to be captured. It wasn’t just human life that taken, IS began a campaign of destruction that saw ancient times monuments and artifacts reduced to no more than rubble. Now, with the full attention of the world, they called on their supporters to join them in waging war against those that sought them harm, either by traveling to Syria to fight or to act independently in the land of their enemies.
In the past year, a number of big profile attacks by Jihadist operatives outside of Syria and Iraq have resulted in killings in Sousse in Tunisia and most recently, and the second attack in Paris, France the deadliest the country has seen since World War 2. As both sides prepare to take the conflict further, the battle between Islamic State and the rest of the world does not look like it’s going to end anytime soon.
A bit of nomenclature:
You may have heard about ISIS referred to as IS, ISIL, or Daesh. All of these acronyms describe the group in question.
ISIS: Islamic State of Iraq and Syria was the name of the team when it captured Mosul in 2014 and became the terrorist juggernaut it is present day. They named themselves that to assert their dominance in Syria.
ISIL: The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant is the name that Obama uses to describe the group. Watch out speaking, it is just a translation thing.
IS: Islamic State is the name the group gave itself after a “rebranding” effort when they wanted to show off their global strategy (they no limited to Syria and Iraq anymore).
Daesh: You may have heard French President Francois Hollande refer group by this name. This is essentially identical the Arabic acronym of the group. People assume that using this word somehow weakens them… it doesn’t, because unfortunately, in this case, it is one of those “sticks and stones” things.
Since at least 2004, a significant goal of the group has been the foundation of a Sunni Islamic state. Specifically, ISIL sought to establish itself as a caliphate, an Islamic state led by a group of religious authorities under a supreme leader – the caliph – who is believed to be the successor to Prophet Muhammad. In June 2014, ISIL published a document in which it claimed to have traced the lineage of its leader al-Baghdadi back to Muhammad. And upon proclaiming a new caliphate on 29 June, the group appointed al-Baghdadi as its caliph. As caliph, he demands the allegiance of all devout Muslims worldwide, according to Islamic jurisprudence.
ISIL has detailed its goals in its Dabiq magazine, saying it will continue to seize land and take over the entire Earth until its:
Blessed flag…covers all eastern and western extents of the Earth, filling the world with the truth and justice of Islam and putting an end to the falsehood and tyranny of jahiliyyah, even if American and its coalition despise such.
According to German journalist Jürgen Todenhöfer, who spent ten days embedded with ISIL in Mosul. The view he kept hearing that ISIL wants to “conquer the world”. And also that all who do not believe in the group’s interpretation of the Quran will be killed. Todenhöfer was struck by the ISIL fighters’ belief that “all religions who agree with democracy have to die”. And their “incredible enthusiasm” – including enthusiasm for killing “hundreds of millions” of people.
When the caliphate was proclaimed, ISIL stated: “The legality of all emirates, groups, states, and organizations becomes null by the expansion of the Khilafah [caliphate’s] authority and the arrival of its troops to their areas.” This was a rejection of the political divisions in Southwestern Asia that were established by the UK and France during World War I in the Sykes-Picot Agreement.
All non-Muslim areas targeted for conquest after the Muslim lands dealt with, according to the Islamist manual Management of Savagery
Leadership and governance
ISIL head and run by Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi. Before their deaths, he had two leaders, Abu Muslim al-Turkmani for Iraq and Abu Ali al-Anbari for Syria, both Turkmen. Advising al-Baghdadi a cabinet of main leaders, while its operations in Iraq and Syria handled by local governors. Below the leaders are councils on finance, leadership, military matters, legal matters foreign fighters assistance, security, intelligence, and media. A shura council has the task of ensuring that all decisions made by the governors and councils comply with the group’s interpretation of sharia. While al-Baghdadi told followers to “advise me when I err” in sermons. According to observers “any threat, opposition, or even contradiction instantly eradicated”.
According to Iraqis, Syrians and analysts who study the group, almost all of ISIL’s leaders. Also, Including the people of its military and security committees. Majority of its emirs and princes—are former Iraqi military and intelligence officers. Specifically former members of Saddam Hussein’s Ba’ath government. Those who lost their jobs and pensions in the de-Ba’athification process after that regime overthrown.
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The former Chief Strategist in the Office of the Coordinator for Counterterrorism of the US State Department. David Kilcullen has said that “There undeniably would be no ISIS if we had not invaded Iraq. It has reported that Iraqis and Syrians gave greater precedence over other nationalities within ISIL. This is because the group needs the loyalties of the local Sunni populations in both Syria and Iraq.
In order to be sustainable. Other reports, however, have indicated that Syrians are at a disadvantage to foreign members. With some native Syrian fighters resenting “favoritism” allegedly shown towards foreigners over pay and accommodation.
In August 2016, media report based on deeply by Western intelligence agencies suggested that ISIL had a multilevel secret service. It known in Arabic as Emni, established in 2014, that has become a combination of an internal police force. Also an external operations directorate complete with regional branches. The unit believed to be under the overall command of ISIL’s most senior Syrian operative, spokesman and propaganda chief Abu Mohammad al-Adnani until his death by the airstrike in late August 2016.
1999 Originated as jama’at al-tawid wal-jihad
2003 Became actively involved in the Iraq insurgency
2004 Pledged allegiance to Al Qaeda
2006 Formed the Mujahideen Shura Council.First declaration of an Islamic state in Iraq
2011 The Syrian Civil War begins
2014 Separated from Al Qaeda
Declared a Caliphate
Began a public campaign of beheadings
Destroyed dozens of ancient architectural sites and historic artifacts
Claimed territory in Sinai Province in addition to previous holdings in the Levan
2015 Claimed further territories in Afghanistan, Pakistan, and parts of India and Nigeria
Began attacking ‘Western’ targets outside of IS-controlled areas, notably in Tunisia and France