GossipSector Brings one of the posts related to India-Pakistan Relationship since the creation of both the nations. in 1947 has been rocky, where the nations have been involved in four wars. Kashmir has been the bedrock issue between both the nations and has been an unresolved boundary dispute.
Terrorism, particularly targeting India which bred on Pakistani soil is yet another major issue which has mired the relationship.
Despite many positive initiatives taken, the India-Pakistan relationship in recent times has reached an all-time low with some sore issues sticking out. Here we are analyzing the core issues in the India-Pakistan relationship.
Key Events In India-Pakistan Relations: A timeline
Britain ends its colonial rule over the Indian subcontinent, which becomes two independent nations – Hindu-majority.But secularly governed India and the Islamic Republic of Pakistan. The division, widely known as Partition, sparks massive rioting that kills up to 10 lakh, while another 1.5 crore people flee their homes in one of the world’s largest human migrations.
A camp for displaced Indian Muslims next to Homerun’s Tomb in New Delhi, during the period of unrest following the Partition of India and Pakistan.
The two young nations begin a war over control of Kashmir, a Muslim-majority kingdom ruled by a Hindu maharaja. A UN-brokered cease-fire ends the war in a year with Kashmir divided between them.
Indian Sikh troops take up positions to help force invaders further away from the Kashmir capital, Srinagar in November 1947.
India and Pakistan agree to a UN Security Council resolution calling for a referendum in which Kashmiris would determine their future; the vote never takes place.
India and Pakistan sign a World Bank-brokered Indus Water Treaty governing six rivers, or three rivers each. It is the only India-Pakistan treaty that has held.
A second war begins over Kashmir, ending a month later in another UN-mandated ceasefire.
A third war is fought, this time as India supports secessionists in East Pakistan. The war ends with the creation of Bangladesh.
Indian troops advance inside the Northwest sector of East Pakistan in December 1971.
July 1972 (India-Pakistan Relationship)
The countries’ prime ministers sign an accord for the return of tens of thousands of Pakistani prisoners of war.
Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi, right, and President of Pakistan Zulfikar Ali Bhutto shake hands after signing the Simla Agreement.
India conducts a nuclear test, becoming the first nation to do so that’s not a permanent UN Security Council member.
The scene of India’s first underground nuclear explosion conducted in Pokharan in Rajasthan.
Armed resistance to Indian rule in Kashmir begins. India accuses Pakistan of giving weapons and training to the fighters. Pakistan says it offers only “moral and diplomatic” support.
India detonates five nuclear devices in tests. Pakistan detonates six. Both slapped with international sanctions.
Indian Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee rides a bus to the Pakistani city of Lahore to meet with Pakistan counterpart, Nawaz Sharif, and sign a major peace accord.
Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee with Pakistani counterpart Nawaz Sharif in Lahore.
Conflict erupts in Kargil as Pakistani forces and Kashmiri fighters occupy Himalayan peaks. India launches air and ground strikes. The US brokers peace.
Indian army soldiers fire artillery in the northernmost part of the Kargil region.
May 2001 (India-Pakistan Relationship)
Vajpayee and Pakistan’s President Pervez Musharraf meet in the Indian city of Agra but reach no agreements.
Insurgents attack the legislature building in Kashmir, killing 38 people.
Gunmen attack India’s Parliament, killing 14. India blames militant groups Lashkar-e-Taiba and Jaish-e-Muhammad and deploys troops to its western frontier with Pakistan. The standoff ends in October 2002 after international mediation.
Musharraf and Vajpayee hold talks, launching bilateral negotiations to settle outstanding issues.
A train service between India and Pakistan, the Samjhauta Express, bombed in northern India, killing 68. Charred coaches of the Samjhauta Express.
India and Pakistan open a trade route across Kashmir for the first time in six decades.
Gunmen attack Mumbai, killing 166 people. India blames Pakistan-based terror group Lashkar-e-Taiba. Mumbai’s Taj Mahal Palace Hotel on fire after the terror attack.
India’s new Prime Minister Narendra Modi invites Pakistani counterpart Nawaz Sharif to New Delhi for his inauguration.
PM Modi makes a surprise visit to the Pakistani city of Lahore on Sharif’s birthday and the wedding of his granddaughter.
Six gunmen attack an Indian air force base in the northern town of Pathankot, killing seven soldiers in a battle that lasted nearly four days.
Indian soldiers kill Kashmiri terrorist and Hizbul Mujahideen leader Burhan Wani, sparking months of anti-India protests and deadly clashes in the region.
Suspected terrorists sneak into an Indian army base in Kashmir’s Uri and kill 18 soldiers. Four attackers were also killed. 11 days later, Indian Army said it has carried out “surgical strikes” to destroy terror launch pads across the Line of Control in Pakistan.
Refugees awaiting evacuation by IAF Dakota on Poonch Airstrip, December 1947.
Indo-Pakistani War of 1947 (India-Pakistan Relationship)
Indian soldiers during the 1947–1948 war.
The war also called the First Kashmir War, started in October 1947 when Pakistan feared that the Maharaja of the princely state of Kashmir and Jammu would accede to India. Following partition, states left to choose whether to join India or Pakistan or to remain independent. Jammu and Kashmir, the largest of the princely states, had a predominantly Muslim population ruled by the Hindu Maharaja Hari Singh.
Tribal forces with support from the army of Pakistan attacked and occupied parts of the princely state forcing the Maharaja to sign the Instrument of Accession of the princely state to the Dominion of India to receive Indian military aid. The UN Security Council passed Resolution 47 on 22 April 1948. The fronts solidified gradually along what came to be known as the Line of Control. A formal cease-fire declared at 23:59 on the night of 1 January 1949. India gained control of about two-thirds of the state including (Kashmir valley, Jammu, and Ladakh) whereas Pakistan gained roughly a third of Kashmir (Azad Kashmir and Gilgit–Baltistan).
Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 (India-Pakistan Relationship)
This war started following Pakistan’s Operation Gibraltar, which was designed to infiltrate forces into Jammu and Kashmir to precipitate an insurgency against rule by India. India retaliated by launching a full-scale military attack on West Pakistan. The seventeen-day war caused thousands of casualties on both sides and witnessed the largest engagement of armored vehicles and the largest tank battle since World War II.The hostilities between the two countries ended after a ceasefire was declared following diplomatic intervention by the Soviet Union and the USA and the subsequent issuance of the Tashkent Declaration.Both India and Pakistan claimed victory.
Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 (India-Pakistan Relationship)
Lieutenant-General A. A. K. Niazi, the commander of Pakistan Eastern Command, signing the instrument of surrender in Dhaka on 16 Dec 1971, in the presence of India’s Lt. Gen. Jagjit Singh Aurora.
Pakistan’s PNS Ghazi, the Pakistani submarine which sank off during the 1971 Indo-Pakistani War under mysterious circumstances on the Visakhapatnam coast.
This war was unique in the way that it did not involve the issue of Kashmir but rather precipitated by the crisis created by the political battle brewing in erstwhile East Pakistan between Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, Leader of East Pakistan, and Yahya Khan and Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, leaders of West Pakistan. This would culminate in the declaration of Independence of Bangladesh from the state system of Pakistan. Following Operation Searchlight and the 1971 Bangladesh atrocities, about 10 million Bengalis in East Pakistan took refuge in neighboring India. India intervened in the ongoing Bangladesh liberation movement. After a large-scale pre-emptive strike by Pakistan, full-scale hostilities between the two countries commenced.
Pakistan attacked at several places along India’s western border with Pakistan, but the Indian Army successfully held their positions. The Indian Army quickly responded to the Pakistan Army’s movements in the west and made some initial gains, including capturing around 5,795 square miles (15,010 km2) of Pakistan territory (land gained by India in Pakistani Kashmir, Pakistani Punjab and Sindhsectors but gifted it back to Pakistan in the Simla Agreement of 1972, as a gesture of goodwill). Within two weeks of intense fighting, Pakistani forces in East Pakistan surrendered to the joint command of Indian and Bangladeshi forces following which the People’s Republic of Bangladesh created.
This war saw the highest number of casualties in any of the India-Pakistan conflicts, as well as the largest number of prisoners of war since the Second World War after the surrender of more than 90,000 Pakistani military and civilians. In the words of one Pakistani author, “Pakistan lost half its navy, a quarter of its air force and a third of its army”.
Indo-Pakistani War of 1999 (India-Pakistan Relationship)
Commonly known as the Kargil War, this conflict between the two countries mostly limited. In 1999, Pakistani troops infiltrated across the Line of Control (LoC) and occupied Indian territory mostly in the Kargil district. India responded by launching a major military and diplomatic offensive to drive out the Pakistani infiltrators. Two months into the conflict, Indian troops slowly have retaken most of the ridges that were encroached by the infiltrators. according to the official count, an estimated 75%–80% of the intruded area and nearly all high ground back under Indian control.
Fearing large-scale escalation in the military conflict, the international community, led by the United States, increased diplomatic pressure on Pakistan to withdraw forces from remaining Indian territory. Faced with the possibility of international isolation, the already fragile Pakistani economy weakened further.The moral of Pakistani forces after the withdrawal declined as many units of the Northern Light Infantry suffered heavy casualties.The government refused to accept the dead bodies of many officers, an issue that provoked outrage and protests in the Northern Areas. Pakistan initially did not acknowledge many of its casualties, but Nawaz Sharif later said that over 4,000 Pakistani troops killed in the operation and that Pakistan had lost the conflict. By the end of July 1999, organized hostilities in the Kargil district had ceased.
The never-ending issues
Cross-border terrorism has always been an issue.
Some analysts go to the extent of saying that both nations are always in a perpetual state of war.
Despite the fact the after the Kargil conflict, there was a Ceasefire Agreement signed in 2003. Moreover, there have been regular cross-border ceasefire violations from the Pakistan side of the border with the trend being as such that since 2009 onwards, there has been a rise in the violations (with the exception of 2014). It has killed and injured security forces as well as civilians on both the sides.
With the regime change in India, there has been a different approach to the violations. With the hardline policy of the new government, there has been massive retaliation to the unprovoked firing.
Thus, out of desperation, there has been a rise in the number of infiltrations of terrorists from across the Line of Control (LOC), which has been routine for quite a while now.
With the void in between the Kashmiri people and the establishment increasing after the devastating floods of 2014. There was rising discontent again in the valley. The trigger to the events was the killing of the militant commander of the terrorist organization Hizb-ul-Mujahideen Burhan Wani, which led to widespread protests in the valley. The situation has been highly volatile ever since with almost daily scenes of protests and stone pelting in the valley.
Pakistan has taken advantage of the situation and has fuelled the protests by providing the elements fighting against the Indian establishment and Forces in the state with all sorts of possible support. The PM of Pakistan went a step ahead and during the United Nations General Assembly meeting of 2016, declared Wani as a martyr and the struggle of the people of Kashmir as an Intifada.
This is in sync with the stand Pakistan holds on Kashmir i.e., to internationalize the issue of Kashmir. And Also asking for holding a plebiscite in Kashmir under Indian administration to decide the fate of Kashmiri people. The stand rejected by India as it says it is in direct violation of the Shimla Agreement of 1972. Which clearly mentions that peaceful resolution to all issues will be through bilateral approach.
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After the attack at the Pathankot base in 2016 January, there was again a thaw in the relationship, especially when seen in the context that the Indian PM paid an unscheduled visit to Pakistan to meet his Pakistani counterpart. With Kashmir already on the boil and Pakistan adding fuel to fire to the situation, the attack on Uri Army camp in September 2016.19 Indian soldiers killed made the Indian PM declare the statement that ‘talks and terrorism’ cannot go hand in hand.
This was followed by surgical strikes carried out by the Indian Army across the LOC targeting the terror infrastructure in Pakistan occupied Kashmir (PoK). They were carried out at the end of September.
In a first, India tinkered with the Indus Water Treaty, a Treaty which has stood the test of time and the bitter sour relationship for more than 55 years. It was pondering with the fact to fully exploit the water potential of the West flowing rivers over which Pakistan has control.
Thus, the fact trickles down to the point that India has its stand that until Pakistan doesn’t do enough to tackle the terrorism menace, there can be no talks held in between the nations.
Visit: India-Pakistan Relationship
On the other hand, Pakistan is ready for a dialogue with India. But it wants the inclusion and discussion of the Kashmir issue which it keeps raking up every time.
Benefits, which be accrued from a good India-Pakistan Relationship
If there is peace at the border and a solution of Kashmir arrived upon, then the China Pakistan Economic Corridor, which passing through Pakistan Occupied Kashmir (PoK) can certainly benefit Kashmir and the economy. Kashmir can act as a gateway to Central Asia.
Turkmenistan-Afghanistan-Pakistan-India (TAPI) pipeline which originates in Turkmenistan and passes through Afghanistan, Pakistan before reaching. and terminating in India can also get huge benefits as it can help secure the National Energy needs of both Pakistan and India. which are potentially growing nations with increasing needs of energy?
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Iran-Pakistan-India pipeline is another project, which currently stalled. If relations are cordial, then this pipeline can also supply the energy needs of both the nations.
A stable Afghanistan is in the best interest of both Pakistan as well as India. Terrorism is affecting both India as well as Pakistan. Also, the porous boundary between Afghanistan and Pakistan provides a safe haven for terrorists. Also, a better relationship with Pakistan can give direct road access to Afghanistan. Currently, India has to go via Iran to Afghanistan to send any trade goods and vice versa.
South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC)and the initiatives taken by the association will start to hold more relevance as the same hasn’t lived up to its expected potential as the elephant in the room during any summit is sour in the India-Pakistan relationship.
Positive initiatives were taken in the past
Composite Dialogue Framework, which started from 2004 onwards, excluded, some of the contentious issues between the two sides resulted in good progress on a number of issues.
Delhi-Lahore Bus service was successful in de-escalating tensions for some time.
Recently, the ‘Ufa ‘Agreement’ made during the meeting of the National Security Advisors of both nations at Ufa, Russia.
A couple of important points agreed upon in Ufa were:
- Early meetings of DG BSF and DG Pakistan Rangers followed by the DGMOs.
- Discussing ways and means to expedite the Mumbai case trial, including additional information needed to supplement the trial.
Ufa Agreement has now become a new starting point of any future India-Pakistan dialogue. which is a major gain for India.
However, despite all the initiatives, there is always a breakdown in talks. Thus, more needs to be done for developing peaceful relations. With India and Pakistan both being two Nuclear States, any conflict can lead to a question mark on the existence of the subcontinent as well as the entire planet, especially with the border being ‘live’ almost all the time.
Future of India-Pakistan Relationship
India and Pakistan are neighbors. Neighbours can’t be changed. Thus, it is in the better of interest of both the nations. So that they bring all the issues on the drawing board and resolve them amicably.
India wants Pakistan to act more strongly on the terrorism being sponsored from its soil.
Also, India wants Pakistan to conclude the trial of 26/11 sooner so that the victims brought to justice. The conspirers meted out proper punishment.
India has genuine concerns, as there internationally declared terrorists roaming freely in Pakistan and preaching hate sermons as well instigating terror attacks.
With the international community accusing Pakistan of breeding terrorism on its soil, Pakistan cannot remain in denial state.
Thus, needs to act tougher on terrorism-related issues.