United Nation (UN)
The organization is an international organization, UN does all the tasks which are decided by all the nations as well as promotes international co-operation and maintains international order. So It was founded just after world war 2 on 24 October 1945 to prevent other conflicts. There were 51 Nations when established, now there are 193, Imagine almost every nation is a member. UN has headquarters situated in Manhattan, New York. And further main offices are situated in Geneva, Nairobi, and Vienna. The Organization is financed by voluntary contributions from its member states. UN maintains international peace and security, promotes human rights, fostering social and economic development, protecting the environment, and providing humanitarian and in cases of famine, natural disaster, and armed conflict. The UN is the largest, most familiar, most internationally represented and most powerful, intergovernmental organization.
The official languages in United Nations are Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish. There are 193 Member states as well as 2 Observer States.
Leaders [United Nations]
Secretary‑General: António Guterres
Deputy Secretary-General: Amina J. Mohammed
General Assembly President: Miroslav Lajčák
Economic and Social Council President: Frederick Musiiwa Makamure Shava
Security Council President: Elbio Rosselli
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The UN Charter drafted at a conference between April–June 1945. In San Francisco, and signed on 26 June 1945 at the conclusion of the conference; this charter took effect 24 October 1945, and the UN began operation. So The UN’s mission to preserve world peace complicated in its early decades by the Cold War between the US and the Soviet Union and their respective allies. The organization participated in major actions in Korea and the Congo, as well as approving the creation of the state of Israel in 1947. The organization’s membership grew significantly following widespread decolonization in the 1960s, and by the 1970s its budget for economic and social development programmes far outstripped its spending on peacekeeping. After the end of the Cold War, the UN took on major military and peacekeeping missions across the world with varying degrees of success.
The United Nations has six principal organs: the General Assembly (the main deliberative assembly); the Security Council (for deciding certain resolutions for peace and security); the Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC; for promoting international economic and social co-operation and development); the Secretariat (for providing studies, information, and facilities needed by the UN); the International Court of Justice (the primary judicial organ); and the UN Trusteeship Council (inactive since 1994). UN System agencies include the World Bank Group, the World Health Organization, the World Food Programme, UNESCO, and UNICEF. The UN’s most prominent officer the Secretary-General, an office held by Portuguese António Guterres since 2017. Non-governmental organizations may granted consultative status with ECOSOC and other agencies to participate in the UN’s work.
The organization won the Nobel Peace Prize in 2001, and a number of its officers and agencies have also awarded the prize. Other evaluations of the UN’s effectiveness have mixed. Some commentators believe the organization to be an important force for peace and human development, while others have called the organization ineffective, corrupt, or biased.
- To maintain international peace and security, and to that end: to take effective collective measures for the prevention and removal of threats to the peace, and for the suppression of acts of aggression or other breaches of the peace, and to bring about by peaceful means, and in conformity with the principles of justice and international law, adjustment or settlement of international disputes or situations which might lead to a breach of the peace;
- Moreover, To develop friendly relations among nations based on respect for the principle of equal rights and self-determination of peoples, and to take other appropriate measures to strengthen universal peace;
- Similarly, To achieve international co-operation in solving international problems of an economic, social, cultural, or humanitarian character, and in promoting and encouraging respect for human rights and for fundamental freedoms for all without distinction as to race, sex, language, or religion; and
- To be a center for harmonizing the actions of nations in the attainment of these common ends.
The Security Council [United Nation]
- The Security Council shall consist of fifteen Members of the United Nation. The Republic of China, France, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the United States of America shall be permanent members of the Security Council. The General Assembly shall elect ten other Members of the United Nations to be non-permanent members of the Security Council. Due regard especially paid, in the first instance to the contribution of Members of the United Nation to the maintenance of international peace and security. And to the other purposes of the Organization, and also to equitable geographical distribution.
- The non-permanent members of the Security Council shall elect for a term of two years. In the first election of the non-permanent members after the increase of the membership of the Security Council from eleven to fifteen. Two of the four additional members shall choose for a term of one year. A retiring member shall not eligible for immediate re-election.
- Each member of the Security Council shall have one representative.
FUNCTIONS and POWERS [United Nation]
- In order to ensure prompt and effective action by the United Nations, its Members confer on the Security Council. Primary responsibility for the maintenance of international peace and security. And agree that in carrying out its duties under this responsibility the Security Council acts on their behalf.
- So In discharging these duties, the Security Council shall act in accordance with the Purposes and Principles of the United Nations. The specific powers granted to the Security Council for the discharge of these duties laid down.
- The Security Council shall submit annual and, when necessary, special reports to the General Assembly for its consideration.